What is the impact of COVID-19 on LGBTI migrants?

What is the impact of COVID-19 on LGBTI migrants?

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) migrants may face intersecting discriminations: both as migrants as well as on the basis of their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. It is important that measures are put in place to ensure that these populations have equal access to public health and safety services, and assistance to overcome the socio-economic impacts of the crisis. Here are some of the specific challenges that LGBTI migrants may have to overcome.

Difficulties in accessing healthcare services

In general, LGBTI people regularly face discrimination and stigma when accessing health services, starting with the criminalization of same-sex relationships in some countries and discrimination against trans people due to their gender identity. The existence of laws in some countries that criminalize same sex relationships or target trans people due to their gender identity exacerbates these situations. Some LGBTI people may avoid health services due to fear of arrest or violence. Some LGBTI migrants, particularly those with irregular status, may be less willing to access health care or provide information on their health status as they fear deportation, family separation or detention.

Finally, it is important to note that  for many LGBTI migrants from Central America and the Caribbean, returning to their countries of origin could mean facing a high risk of violence or discriminatory laws.

Stigmatization, discrimination, hate speech and attacks on the LGBTI community

During health crises, both LGBTI and migrant communities are likely to face stigma and discrimination as a result of being erroneously blamed for the pandemic. This doubles the vulnerability and risk of discrimination for LGBTI migrants. For example, in some countries  a measure was introduced that only allowed men and women to leave their homes on alternating days of the week and gave police the power to confirm a person’s gender based on their official documentation. This leaves transgender, intersex and non-binary migrants at risk of discrimination as they may not be able to change their gender on their identification, depending on the laws in their countries of origin.

Access to work and livelihood

Due to the various forms of social and economic discrimination faced by LGBTI migrants, they are more likely to work in the informal sector and lack access to paid sick leave or unemployment compensation. LGBTI migrants will not be eligible to apply for payments to reduce the negative socio-economic of the COVID-19 pandemic in countries where these policies only apply to nationals.

Vulnerability to violence and exploitation

Transgender and nonbinary migrants are particularly vulnerable to exploitation due to employment discrimination on the basis of their gender identity and/or nationality. Traffickers take advantage of this vulnerability and many actively seek out trans and nonbinary victims. Traffickers are also likely to exploit the uncertainty, mobility restrictions and increased internal displacement resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

What are some key actions that stakeholders can take?

States and other actors should consider the specific needs and vulnerabilities of LGBTI migrants and ensure their voices are heard when creating responses to the COVID-19 outbreak. Below are some recommendations:

  1. Understand that health is a universal right, which means that  LGBTI migrants should be able to access healthcare services, regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity or migration status and that they are not subjected to discrimination or fear negative consequences for seeking healthcare.
  2. Ensure that the LGBTI migrants are included in measures to reduce the socio-economic impact of the pandemic and that their specific vulnerabilities are addressed.
  3. Political leaders and other public figures should speak out against stigmatization and hate speech directed at both LGBTI persons and migrants during the pandemic.
  4. Shelters, support services and other measures to address gender-based violence and human trafficking during the COVID-19 pandemic should adopt an approach that is inclusive of LGBTI migrants.
  5. Border and law enforcement officials should be trained and instructed not to discriminate against LGBTI populations. Measures involving mobility restrictions should also provide protection for trans and non-binary individuals.

Addressing the negative impacts of COVID-19 on LGBTI migrants requires an intersectional approach and a strong commitment from key stakeholders to consider how new measures could have unintended consequences on this populations. For more information on the COVID-19 pandemic and the human rights on LGBTI individuals, consult this document from the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.


Guatemala is building resilience in returnee children through Mayan ancestral narratives

Categoria: Communication & Migration
Autor: Guest Contributor

Almost 60% of unaccompanied migrant children returning to Guatemala identify themselves as belonging to one of the 22 Mayan linguistic groups. Drawing on narratives from their own worldview is helping psychosocial care services strengthen the resilient response as a step prior to family reunification.

Teresa*, 16 years old, from the Mayan Kiche' linguistic group and originally from the department of Quiché, Guatemala, left her community of origin in an irregular manner to join her brother in the United States. During the journey through Mexico, she was apprehended and taken to a state shelter for migrant children, where she stayed for two weeks. "My brother was doing very well at work in the United States until the pandemic hit. He has stopped sending the remittance and I want to help my family; I also want a career, but in the community there is no school or university, plus we couldn't afford it," she said.

"All emotional response is a product of the experiences during the irregular migration experience; boys and girls resort to protective mechanisms that help them cope with adversity, which will depend a lot on their own personality and their social context," said Alejandra Mayorga, mental health and psychosocial support assistant of the International Organization for Migration (IOM).

According to official data systematized by the IOM, almost 60% of children returning from Mexico and the United States identify their origin in one of the 22 Mayan peoples of the country. With respect for their worldview and in coordination with government authorities and civil society actors, IOM is providing culturally relevant mental health and psychosocial support services (MHPSS) to achieve an emotionally safe environment for family reunification.

Between January and June 2021, migration authorities in Guatemala registered 2,623 returns of unaccompanied migrant children and adolescents, 96.8% of whom returned from Mexico, 3% from the United States and the rest to other locations. Six out of every 10 children return by land to the city of Quetzaltenango, in the highlands, and the rest by air. Seventy-nine per cent are boys and 20.6 per cent girls.

Teresa, along with 56 other teenagers, landed in Guatemala City at approximately 9 am. She was transferred to Casa Nuestras Raíces, one of two shelters run by the Social Welfare Secretariat of the Presidency (SBS) where she received a change of new clothes, shoes, food, a personal hygiene kit and a disinfection kit. She also had access to sanitation and a general medical check-up. In addition, she was randomly selected for a COVID-19 test; all returning children participate in this protocol in order to protect their rights. Fortunately, her result is negative, but this is not the case for 4 other children who returned on the same flight.

The staff of the Procuraduría General de la Nación (PGN) located in the shelter has already contacted her family in Quiché so that they can come for her within 72 hours. In the meantime, a bed has been assigned to her for the night. During this period, the IOM, in coordination with the Association for Research, Development and Integral Education (IDEI) and Me Quito el Sombrero Producciones, implements a strategy where through games, laughter, theater, music, magic and mime, they encourage healthy coexistence and safe spaces for their psychosocial well-being during the time they are waiting for their families.

"These activities allow government authorities to create moments of reunification without the emotional pressure that can result from the irregular migration experience," added IOM's Alejandra Mayorga.

The Mayan nahual Q'anil as a metaphor for protecting the best interests of the child (ISN)

IDEI implements a holistic methodology based on the Mayan nahual Q'anil which symbolizes the four colours of corn in Mesoamerica: red, black, white and yellow. Also the four skin colours and the cardinal points of the universe. "To harvest the corn, we must first protect the seeds, just as we must protect the migrant children. If they are not given the opportunities for development, the countries will not be able to harvest all the good, the creativity and the contributions that these migrant boys and girls have," said Jorge López, Maya Achí, from the IDEI Association.

"During our interventions we also make reference to the rest of the nahuales, because each person is born under one of these guides that govern the personalities, qualities and aptitudes in each human being; these contents allow us to guide them towards the professions in which they could excel during their lives and what type of studies they should seek," added the interviewee.

For its part, Me Quito el Sombrero Producciones, develops theatre, mime, music and magic based on the narrative of the seed to accompany and explain to the children the process of growth, the enjoyment of childhood, the importance of love in the family and the contributions they could make to their respective communities.

"It is shocking to live with children of very young ages, 5 or 6 years old, who migrated unaccompanied; but their reactions are also a response of hope to continue building resilience and healing in migrant families," said Susana Recinos "Blanca Lluvia", humanitarian clown of Me quito el Sombrero Producciones.

"We try to bring positive energy to the children and adolescents who are awaiting the arrival of their family resource for reunification, to generate laughter for relaxation and as an element to face adversity; we also teach them to juggle and make music with those who already have the ukulele. We try to lower the energetic revolutions that they bring from that migratory experience," Blanca Lluvia informed.

"The biggest challenge is with the children who received a positive result for COVID-19 because they must be in specific areas of observation, with limited visits and contact with other people; however, we have already established mechanisms to enjoy some activities to support their mental and psychosocial health," concluded the interviewed.