How does technology help migrants from Central America?

MigApp

 

When high-risk journeys take place, such as long walks crossing multiple Central American countries, uncertainty is always present. The surge of information and the variety of sources makes it difficult for migrants to access reliable and pertinent information, this can result in an increase of vulnerability of those who move to another country.

According to World Migration Report 2018, "although many [migrants] are aware that the information provided may not be accurate, prospective migrants may use social media to locate smugglers. […] there are groups, on Facebook for instance, where migrants and asylum seekers search for travelling companions and ask for advice on dangers, risks and reliable smugglers."

To help break this scheme, since June 2018, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), developed the MigApp application (formerly under the name MigrantApp) to answer the most frequent questions and needs of migrants, before, during and after their journey. It is a tool that focuses on relevant information and excludes "boisterous" content.

While the app collects the profile of those who use it (age, sex, countries of transit, among others) to visualize migratory patterns that facilitate the analysis and understanding of the phenomenon to international organizations and governments, the data of those who use the application always remains anonymous. This broadens the information framework for migration governance to promote a safe, regular and orderly migration.

 

How does MigApp help migrants from Central America?

  • Useful information for a safe migration: To reduce the impact of unreliable or dispersed sources, MigApp compiles the requirements of entry and stay in other countries, how to manage work permits, locations of IOM medical centers, migrants’ rights, among others. In this way the user can prepare before traveling and foresee relief spaces during transit.
  • Compares money transfers platforms costs: The financial conditions in which many of these people migrate are precarious and they may need economic help of their relatives and acquaintances along the way. Through MigApp, migrants can compare the prices of different remittance platforms to choose the one that is least expensive.
  • Access to information on basic telephones and/or without Internet: Once downloaded, many of the features of the application do not require access to Internet to be consulted: it is static information always available for those who travel. Also, the application is designed so that it can be installed on any type of mobile device, regardless of its operating system or model.
  • Possibility of return: If a migrant voluntarily decides to return to his/her country, IOM facilitates a safe return, regardless the migratory status of the person requesting it. This request can be made in the different offices of the organization, and through MigApp.  

For more information about MigApp, please visit https://www.iom.int/migapp 

DOWNLOAD MigApp for Android o iOS.

 


Solutions to address the labor exploitation of migrant populations in Central America

Solutions to address the labor exploitation of migrant populations in Central America
Categoria: Labour Migration
Autor: Guest Contributor

Migrants face different challenges when they settle in their destination countries, including their entry into the labor force. Studies such as CEPAL (link in Spanish) indicate that irregular migrants are more likely to experience poor working conditions and be employed in low-skilled jobs. Including those who obtain a regular status, in some countries, migrants receive salaries below the average of nationals.

To better understand the labor conditions of migrants in Central America, the Central American Integration System (SICA), in conjunction with IOM and UNHCR, developed a baseline study on migration and displacement in the SICA region (link in Spanish), where they are addressed, among other issues, labor discrimination. The study indicates as a relevant finding that labor exploitation is often not conceptualized as a violation of human rights, but only as an administrative offense, which circumvents the corresponding penalty and facilitates the perpetuation of the issue.

According to the study, another consequence of the precarious work for most migrants in the region is the lack of access to social security. One the one hand, this is due to the economic cost involved, as they first need to obtain a regular immigration status which entails certain expenses. On the other hand, the more ‘informal’ that their employment is, the less likely it is to be connect to social security benefits.

The legislation and working conditions of people vary from country to country. To address the challenges of labor migration, the study by SICA, IOM and UNHCR (link in Spanish) proposes several courses of action so that states can collaboratively and comprehensively address the integration of this type of migratory flow including irregular migration, labor discrimination, social security and regional integration. Some of the actions recommended by the study are:

To discourage irregular labor migration

• Support countries in ratifying the ILO Migration for Employment Convention (No. 97) and the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143), as well as adopting the ILO Migration Statistics Recommendations (No. 19).

• Analyze national labor markets to identify areas with deficits or surpluses of trained personnel.

• Strengthen the collection and exchange of information on the needs of labor markets, with approved regional variables.

 

To address labor discrimination

• Implement policies against discrimination and xenophobia.

• Strengthen instruments to ensure the protection of the rights of migrant workers.

• Promote mechanisms of social, labor, and cultural integration of migrants in destination countries.

 

To facilitate access to social security and the protection of migrants

• Support countries in the ratification of the Multilateral Social Security Agreement (link in Spanish).

• Promote internal legislation that protects migrants’ rights to social security.

• Design social security schemes that respond to the specific needs of migrants and their families.

 

To facilitate regional integration of labor migration

• Facilitate the exchange of labor migration information between countries in the region.

• Promote mechanisms (or include spaces in existing mobility agreements) that allow intra-regional labor mobility.

 

In addition to these key actions, the study includes contributions to address labor discrimination specifically with indigenous migrants and LGBTI + populations, who may experience a greater precariousness in their working conditions. This information can be accessed via this link (in Spanish).