What is the impact of COVID-19 on LGBTI migrants?

What is the impact of COVID-19 on LGBTI migrants?

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) migrants may face intersecting discriminations: both as migrants as well as on the basis of their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. It is important that measures are put in place to ensure that these populations have equal access to public health and safety services, and assistance to overcome the socio-economic impacts of the crisis. Here are some of the specific challenges that LGBTI migrants may have to overcome.

Difficulties in accessing healthcare services

In general, LGBTI people regularly face discrimination and stigma when accessing health services, starting with the criminalization of same-sex relationships in some countries and discrimination against trans people due to their gender identity. The existence of laws in some countries that criminalize same sex relationships or target trans people due to their gender identity exacerbates these situations. Some LGBTI people may avoid health services due to fear of arrest or violence. Some LGBTI migrants, particularly those with irregular status, may be less willing to access health care or provide information on their health status as they fear deportation, family separation or detention.

Finally, it is important to note that  for many LGBTI migrants from Central America and the Caribbean, returning to their countries of origin could mean facing a high risk of violence or discriminatory laws.

Stigmatization, discrimination, hate speech and attacks on the LGBTI community

During health crises, both LGBTI and migrant communities are likely to face stigma and discrimination as a result of being erroneously blamed for the pandemic. This doubles the vulnerability and risk of discrimination for LGBTI migrants. For example, in some countries  a measure was introduced that only allowed men and women to leave their homes on alternating days of the week and gave police the power to confirm a person’s gender based on their official documentation. This leaves transgender, intersex and non-binary migrants at risk of discrimination as they may not be able to change their gender on their identification, depending on the laws in their countries of origin.

Access to work and livelihood

Due to the various forms of social and economic discrimination faced by LGBTI migrants, they are more likely to work in the informal sector and lack access to paid sick leave or unemployment compensation. LGBTI migrants will not be eligible to apply for payments to reduce the negative socio-economic of the COVID-19 pandemic in countries where these policies only apply to nationals.

Vulnerability to violence and exploitation

Transgender and nonbinary migrants are particularly vulnerable to exploitation due to employment discrimination on the basis of their gender identity and/or nationality. Traffickers take advantage of this vulnerability and many actively seek out trans and nonbinary victims. Traffickers are also likely to exploit the uncertainty, mobility restrictions and increased internal displacement resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

What are some key actions that stakeholders can take?

States and other actors should consider the specific needs and vulnerabilities of LGBTI migrants and ensure their voices are heard when creating responses to the COVID-19 outbreak. Below are some recommendations:

  1. Understand that health is a universal right, which means that  LGBTI migrants should be able to access healthcare services, regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity or migration status and that they are not subjected to discrimination or fear negative consequences for seeking healthcare.
  2. Ensure that the LGBTI migrants are included in measures to reduce the socio-economic impact of the pandemic and that their specific vulnerabilities are addressed.
  3. Political leaders and other public figures should speak out against stigmatization and hate speech directed at both LGBTI persons and migrants during the pandemic.
  4. Shelters, support services and other measures to address gender-based violence and human trafficking during the COVID-19 pandemic should adopt an approach that is inclusive of LGBTI migrants.
  5. Border and law enforcement officials should be trained and instructed not to discriminate against LGBTI populations. Measures involving mobility restrictions should also provide protection for trans and non-binary individuals.

Addressing the negative impacts of COVID-19 on LGBTI migrants requires an intersectional approach and a strong commitment from key stakeholders to consider how new measures could have unintended consequences on this populations. For more information on the COVID-19 pandemic and the human rights on LGBTI individuals, consult this document from the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.


¿How to prevent child trafficking during the pandemic? 5 internet safety tips to help families stay safer.

¿How to prevent child trafficking during the pandemic? 5 internet safety tips to help families stay safer.
Categoria: Trata de personas
Autor: OIM- Oficina Regional San José

July 30 marks World Day against Trafficking in Persons, an initiative promoted with the aim of raising awareness of human trafficking victims and the protection of their rights. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime's Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, between 2017 and 2018, 74,514 victims of trafficking were detected in more than 110 countries. In 2018, about one third of the overall detected victims were children.

As a consequence of physical distancing and restrictions in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, virtual spaces have become more important than ever. Many families are also managing schooling from home, and as a result many of us are spending more time online. Many counter-trafficking and violence experts are concerned about how criminals are also adapting, and the increased the risk of online sexual exploitation and abuse of children, including trafficking. The methods used by traffickers are also changing to take advantage of the current situation. Some traffickers seek to recruit children online, in digital platforms. Using digital platforms such as social networks or instant messaging applications, "cyber criminals" actively pursue children, who become an easy target in their search for acceptance, attention or friendship.

Given this, it raises the question: What can families do to prevent child trafficking in digital media?

For this purpose, we provide a list of recommendations:

1)   Explain to your children how easy it is to create a fake profile on social media. Behind a fake profile can be a lone trafficker or a extensive criminal network looking for potential victims to exploit and abuse.

2)   Teach your children about the risk of talking to strangers in the digital world. Traffickers are aware of the risk of monitoring and surveillance when using technology, that’s one of the reasons they may initially contact potential victims on open groups in social media and move communication to encrypted or anonymized services, such as WhatsApp messaging on cellular phones.

3)   Build trust with your children. Under no circumstances their privacy should be violated (sneaking into their accounts or mailboxes). The generation of trust is vitally important, especially when children need to be accompanied or make inquiries about suspicious activity or people for the purpose of child trafficking.

4)   Discuss with your children the importance to avoid taking and sharing photos and videos with strangers. Traffickers can use them to maintain control over the victims by threatening their distribution.

5)   Good privacy settings help ensure that you have control over who can see your publications. In this way, you can prevent strangers from seeing your posts, photos or videos. Traffickers seem to master the intricacies of linking means of coercive control with digital technologies. They can use photos and videos of their victims to share to assess their suitability for some modelling or sexual job.

In the last 15 years, the number of children among trafficking victims has tripled and the percentage of children has increased fivefold. Faced with this situation, States and intergovernmental organizations have developed a variety of international legal instruments to combat child trafficking, such as the Palermo Protocol. However, the responsibility to combat child trafficking also falls on us as a society, guaranteeing children a comprehensive development and a dignified life: this is known as the best interests of the child.

 

[1] Unicef, Digital Coexistence Awareness Guide, 2017.

[2] UNODC, Global Report On Trafficking un Persons, 2020.