Universal health: three proposals for the inclusion of migrants

 

World Health Day forces us to reflect on the habits that could cause a negative effect on our health and on the measures, we must take to minimize the risks to a disease. It forces us to eat better, to perform more physical activity, to avoid stress and fundamentally to perform medical examinations that allow us to detect and treat all kinds of illness in time.

But what happens when people migrate? Many of those factors, habits and conditions that are already known and that determine your health are modified. You can now find multiple administrative barriers to access services, language limitations, stigma and discrimination and many other conditions that will limit access to basic services, thus affecting your health in an important way. There are still inequities very present in the region preventing the adequate access of large population groups to health services, with barriers based on their migratory status, nationality or other conditions.

Therefore, today we must also reflect on the close link between human mobility and health, and how we are responding as a society to everyone's needs. The campaign, promoted this year by the World Health Organization, "Universal Health Coverage: Everyone, Everywhere" means looking back at those populations that, because of their migratory status, are falling behind. Because of this, I consider it necessary to take action in the following aspects:

  1. Strengthen joint work in a multi-sectoral manner that guarantees access to quality health services, with cultural appropriation and sensibility to the migrant.
  2. Formulate policies that guarantee the inclusion of vulnerable populations and eliminate structural barriers that hinder access to universal health.
  3. Seeking partners, generate alliances, strengthen networks and promote joint and multi-sectoral work that allows us to address issues that merit a regional response, multinational and fundamentally multidimensional.

In Mesoamerica we have a regional and multi-sectoral coordination mechanism that aims to advance these proposals. It is the Joint Initiative of the Health of Migrants and their Families (INCOSAMI) that brings together governments, civil society organizations, regional associations, academia, United Nations agencies and development partners, in order to promote the health and migration agenda in the region.

“Without migrants, including internally displaced people, universal health coverage (UHC) would not be truly universal.”  -Jacqueline Weekers, IOM Director of the Migration Health Division.

On the other hand, it is important to emphasize that the access of migrant populations to universal health must also go beyond services. It is about carrying out actions in places where they are located, either in transit or destination communities. This leads us to the need to design prevention and health promotion campaigns with inclusive communication strategies. It invites us to sensitize and train all health personnel and migration authorities about the rights, contexts and conditions of the migration process.

 

 

   Sobre el autor:

Carlos Van der Laat is the IOM Regional Migration Health Officer for the Americas. Specialist in Family and Community Medicine, he has a Master's Degree in Human Rights and Education for Peace. He has worked for the Costa Rican Social Security Fund and the University of Costa Rica, as well as a consultant forespecia the Pan American Health Organization and UNICEF. He specializes in intercultural health, from where he has formulated and coordinated community projects.

 


Migrant smuggling, trafficking in persons, and white slave trafficking, what's the difference?

Migrant smuggling, trafficking in persons, and white slave trafficking, what's the difference?
Categoria: Migrant Protection and Assistance
Autor: Guest Contributor

Migrant smuggling, trafficking in persons and even white slave trafficking: we might hear these expressions being used as synonyms, when in reality they have very different meanings. Let's start by eliminating one, the term "white slave trafficking".

The term "white slave trafficking" was used at different times in history, but today it is completely outdated, as it only refers to the sexual exploitation of "white-skinned women". The problem with using this expression is that it can imply that only women with certain characteristics can be victims of trafficking (a racist concept), and that the only end of trafficking is sexual exploitation, when the reality is much more complex. This brings us to the second and correct concept, "trafficking in persons".

"Trafficking in persons" refers to all those forms of exploitation for the benefit of a third party, such as debt bondage, child labor, forced labor, forced marriage, forced begging and the removal of organs. In international law, the term is left somewhat open depending on the context, since new forms appear periodically in which one person or group of people forces another to take actions against their will to achieve some benefit. It is a form of modern slavery and can occur within a country or internationally.

According to the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, there are three elements that must be met to characterize a crime as trafficking in persons:

  • The action: That is, the crime carried out by organized networks, where it is evident that actions were taken with the intention of facilitating the exploitation of another person, such as capturing, sending or receiving them.
  • The means: The means is how the criminals manage to carry out the trafficking, for example, through deceit and lies, force, violence, abuse of the other person's vulnerability, etc.
  • Exploitation: In itself, the abuse of another person for the benefit of a third party.

Each of these three elements is made up of many possible actions, but if an action corresponding to each element is carried out, we are dealing with a case of trafficking in persons.

Finally, there is the term "migrant smuggling," which refers to supporting the illegal transfer of a person across border, as "coyotes" do, for exmple. The big difference between "smuggling" and "trafficking" is that traffic violates the laws of the State that is illegally entered, while trafficking violates the human rights of a person. The crime of migrant smuggling is characterized by:

  • The facilitation of illegal entry of a person to another country.
  • The creation or supply of a false identity document or passport.
  • The authorization, by illegal means, of the permanent stay of a non-national or non-resident.

It is clear that both actions, smuggling and trafficking, are often related, since smuggling places people in situations of vulnerability that can trigger a trafficking process. The fact that both crimes are included in the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (also known as the Palermo Convention or Protocol) can also lead to confusion and leads to the belief that they are the same, but they are not.

To learn more about the dangers and characteristics of the crime of human trafficking, we recommend visiting the IOMX campaign.