Extortion is Causing the Expulsion of Migrants from the Northern Triangle of Central America

Extortion is Causing the Expulsion of Migrants from the Northern Triangle of Central America

In cases of forced displacement, extortion is often mentioned as one of the main causes. However, extortion is located within a cycle of violence, such sexual violence, murder, etc., and it is difficult to identify a single incident of extortion as the sole reason for leaving a country.

Although its definition varies depending on national legislation, extortion can be understood as the use of threats, intimidation and other acts of violence to obtain actions or goods from another person against their will, as defined by the Latin American and Caribbean Network of Environmental Funds (REDLAC), in a special bulletin dedicated to this issue and upon which this post is based.

In the context of migration, kidnapping and extortion go hand-in-hand, as smugglers often extort money from migrants by threatening to kidnap their relatives. Extortion can also be committed in the other direction: relatives of migrants who have already arrived in another country are extorted by smugglers, demanding money from them so as not to harm the family member who has already migrated. This can often lead to persecution in communities of origin and destination.

In Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador, the serious issue of personal insecurity fuelled by drug trafficking and corruption has marked the region as one of the most violent on the planet, according to Amnesty International. In this context, extortion schemes demanding payments from local markets and small businesses are commonplace in gang-controlled territories. However, depending on the country, there can also be extortion demands  placed on homes, such as in Guatemala, where this accounts for 55% of extortion complaints.

There is also a difference between the type and impact of extortion experienced by men, women, children and the LGBTIQ+ population. In this sense, when women are extorted for money, threats are often combined with the intimidating possibility of sexual violence. According to the REDLAC bulletin, the bodies of women, adolescents, and girls are treated as territory for revenge and control while children are being increasingly recruited as rent collectors, among other functions.

Migrants are often also extorted by people who are not part of criminal groups but who take advantage of their vulnerable situation to turn a profit, such as locals who demand payment to cross private land rather than using routes with criminal gangs, or transporters who demand money from irregular migrants in exchange for not reporting them to immigration authorities. The same situation has been reported with employers who, on pay-day, threaten to report migrant workers for an irregular migrant status.

There are currently no figures on the number of people displaced or forced to migrate due to extortion in northern Central America, as this is part of a generalised climate of violence; however, some organisations locate this crime as one of the main reasons for migration from areas or even from the country.

 

Extortion during the pandemic

In the bulletin of the Network of Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Funds (REDLAC) which examines extortion as a trigger for internal displacement and forced migration in northern Central America and Mexico, some relevant points were also made about how extortion has adapted to the context of COVID-19:

  • In El Salvador, COVID-19 has reduced the income of gangs, but they have not lost territorial control. Some gangs have established restrictions, such as allowing one individual per family to make food purchases, to reduce the risk that a gang member may become ill and not be able to access medical care.
  • In Honduras, the paralysis of the transportation and informal trade sectors, generally common sectors for extortion, has registered a decrease in cases of extortion due to the pandemic. However, there have been reports of threats of retroactive charges once commerce resumes, house-to-house tariffs, and road ‘tolls’, and scams executed by gangs. Food distributors are frequent victims of extortion when entering communities.
  • In Guatemala, extortion has not stopped either, although at the beginning of the pandemic some maras (gangs) granted ‘pardons’ in their communities. However, national agencies predict that when the restrictive measures end, there will be an increase in other crimes and that extortion will return as a greater threat.

Mobility restrictions increase the risk of people being trapped in violent environments, making it difficult to seek support in other territories and countries. Regardless, many people seek and will continue to seek irregular migration options, despite the dangers of the pandemic, in order to leave the high-violence, low-income contexts in which they live.


¿How to prevent child trafficking during the pandemic? 5 internet safety tips to help families stay safer.

¿How to prevent child trafficking during the pandemic? 5 internet safety tips to help families stay safer.
Categoria: Trata de personas
Autor: OIM- Oficina Regional San José

July 30 marks World Day against Trafficking in Persons, an initiative promoted with the aim of raising awareness of human trafficking victims and the protection of their rights. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime's Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, between 2017 and 2018, 74,514 victims of trafficking were detected in more than 110 countries. In 2018, about one third of the overall detected victims were children.

As a consequence of physical distancing and restrictions in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, virtual spaces have become more important than ever. Many families are also managing schooling from home, and as a result many of us are spending more time online. Many counter-trafficking and violence experts are concerned about how criminals are also adapting, and the increased the risk of online sexual exploitation and abuse of children, including trafficking. The methods used by traffickers are also changing to take advantage of the current situation. Some traffickers seek to recruit children online, in digital platforms. Using digital platforms such as social networks or instant messaging applications, "cyber criminals" actively pursue children, who become an easy target in their search for acceptance, attention or friendship.

Given this, it raises the question: What can families do to prevent child trafficking in digital media?

For this purpose, we provide a list of recommendations:

1)   Explain to your children how easy it is to create a fake profile on social media. Behind a fake profile can be a lone trafficker or a extensive criminal network looking for potential victims to exploit and abuse.

2)   Teach your children about the risk of talking to strangers in the digital world. Traffickers are aware of the risk of monitoring and surveillance when using technology, that’s one of the reasons they may initially contact potential victims on open groups in social media and move communication to encrypted or anonymized services, such as WhatsApp messaging on cellular phones.

3)   Build trust with your children. Under no circumstances their privacy should be violated (sneaking into their accounts or mailboxes). The generation of trust is vitally important, especially when children need to be accompanied or make inquiries about suspicious activity or people for the purpose of child trafficking.

4)   Discuss with your children the importance to avoid taking and sharing photos and videos with strangers. Traffickers can use them to maintain control over the victims by threatening their distribution.

5)   Good privacy settings help ensure that you have control over who can see your publications. In this way, you can prevent strangers from seeing your posts, photos or videos. Traffickers seem to master the intricacies of linking means of coercive control with digital technologies. They can use photos and videos of their victims to share to assess their suitability for some modelling or sexual job.

In the last 15 years, the number of children among trafficking victims has tripled and the percentage of children has increased fivefold. Faced with this situation, States and intergovernmental organizations have developed a variety of international legal instruments to combat child trafficking, such as the Palermo Protocol. However, the responsibility to combat child trafficking also falls on us as a society, guaranteeing children a comprehensive development and a dignified life: this is known as the best interests of the child.

 

[1] Unicef, Digital Coexistence Awareness Guide, 2017.

[2] UNODC, Global Report On Trafficking un Persons, 2020.