Breaking down some of the myths surrounding human trafficking

Derribando algunos de los mitos alrededor de la trata de personas

On July 30, we commemorate the World Day Against Trafficking in Persons, a crime which has caught more than 40 million people worldwide in exploitation situations.

Despite being a recognized crime around the world, there are many myths that surround its reality. To better understand what human trafficking is, we will share some of the most common claims about this crime, and review one by one whether they are true or not.

- Victims of human trafficking are always physically bound, chained or locked up.
FALSE: It is more common for trafficked persons to be trapped by psychological coercion and other forms of control than by physical ties, and these circumstances are orchestrated by traffickers. The confiscation of identity documents, the latent or explicit threat of hurting their loved ones, and lack of knowledge about another language and culture are some of the many situations that make it difficult for a trafficked person to escape or seek help.
- The most common purpose of human trafficking is sexual exploitation.
FALSE: Specialists estimate that more people are trafficked for labor exploitation than for sexual exploitation, and that the former affects almost all industries in some aspect. This includes the areas of manufacturing, fishing, agriculture, construction, entertainment and domestic work.
- The youngest children are those who are most often forced to beg.
TRUE: Children forced to beg are often under 10 years old. Traffickers know that younger people gain more sympathy from passersby and that is why they exploit them. Sometimes babies and young infants are rented by their parents or guardians during the day.
- People in poverty are more vulnerable to human trafficking.
TRUE: Although trafficking in persons involves victims with different levels of income and education, ethnicity, nationality, sex, etc., poverty can make people more vulnerable to trafficking. Other situations that place people in situations of greater vulnerability are climate change, natural disasters, war, discrimination, corruption, being a minor and having disabilities.
- Human trafficking can occur both at a national and international level.
TRUE: The crime of trafficking in persons can occur both within a country and outside it, and in many cases there are known networks of trafficking in persons operating at both levels (national and international).
- If you pay someone to help you cross a border illegally, that is human trafficking.
FALSE: Paying someone to facilitate the illegal crossing of the border without going through official routes with a passport and other documents deemed necessary, or avoiding controls, is illegal smuggling of migrants. Since the smuggling of migrants implies the crossing of borders facilitated by a third party, it is an administrative crime against the State.

Smuggling may become trafficking in persons if the migrant is then forced into exploitation, but if the person is free once he or she reaches their destination, it is smuggling and not trafficking.

- Human trafficking is one of the most lucrative businesses.
TRUE: It is estimated that human trafficking generates profits of more than US $150 billion annually, making it one of the most lucrative criminal activities.

Human trafficking may seem like a distant situation over which we do not have much influence as individuals, but there are several actions we can do to increase knowledge about this crime: talk with family and friends about the issue, report local authorities if you suspect of a trafficking case, and supporting companies that ensure decent working conditions for their workers. All these actions allow an increase in citizen oversight on trafficking.

To make a report about trafficking in persons in the region, contact the following telephone numbers:

• Belize: 911

• Costa Rica: 911

• El Salvador: (+503) 2298 6804

• Guatemala: 110

• Honduras: 911

• Jamaica: 967-1389 / 922-3771

• Mexico: (+01) 800 832 4745

• Nicaragua: 133

• Panama: 311/104 / 507-3200

• Dominican Republic: 700

• Trinidad and Tobago: 800-4288 (4CTU)

Extortion is Causing the Expulsion of Migrants from the Northern Triangle of Central America

Extortion is Causing the Expulsion of Migrants from the Northern Triangle of Central America
Categoria: Migrant Protection and Assistance
Autor: Guest Contributor

In cases of forced displacement, extortion is often mentioned as one of the main causes. However, extortion is located within a cycle of violence, such sexual violence, murder, etc., and it is difficult to identify a single incident of extortion as the sole reason for leaving a country.

Although its definition varies depending on national legislation, extortion can be understood as the use of threats, intimidation and other acts of violence to obtain actions or goods from another person against their will, as defined by the Latin American and Caribbean Network of Environmental Funds (REDLAC), in a special bulletin dedicated to this issue and upon which this post is based.

In the context of migration, kidnapping and extortion go hand-in-hand, as smugglers often extort money from migrants by threatening to kidnap their relatives. Extortion can also be committed in the other direction: relatives of migrants who have already arrived in another country are extorted by smugglers, demanding money from them so as not to harm the family member who has already migrated. This can often lead to persecution in communities of origin and destination.

In Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador, the serious issue of personal insecurity fuelled by drug trafficking and corruption has marked the region as one of the most violent on the planet, according to Amnesty International. In this context, extortion schemes demanding payments from local markets and small businesses are commonplace in gang-controlled territories. However, depending on the country, there can also be extortion demands  placed on homes, such as in Guatemala, where this accounts for 55% of extortion complaints.

There is also a difference between the type and impact of extortion experienced by men, women, children and the LGBTIQ+ population. In this sense, when women are extorted for money, threats are often combined with the intimidating possibility of sexual violence. According to the REDLAC bulletin, the bodies of women, adolescents, and girls are treated as territory for revenge and control while children are being increasingly recruited as rent collectors, among other functions.

Migrants are often also extorted by people who are not part of criminal groups but who take advantage of their vulnerable situation to turn a profit, such as locals who demand payment to cross private land rather than using routes with criminal gangs, or transporters who demand money from irregular migrants in exchange for not reporting them to immigration authorities. The same situation has been reported with employers who, on pay-day, threaten to report migrant workers for an irregular migrant status.

There are currently no figures on the number of people displaced or forced to migrate due to extortion in northern Central America, as this is part of a generalised climate of violence; however, some organisations locate this crime as one of the main reasons for migration from areas or even from the country.


Extortion during the pandemic

In the bulletin of the Network of Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Funds (REDLAC) which examines extortion as a trigger for internal displacement and forced migration in northern Central America and Mexico, some relevant points were also made about how extortion has adapted to the context of COVID-19:

  • In El Salvador, COVID-19 has reduced the income of gangs, but they have not lost territorial control. Some gangs have established restrictions, such as allowing one individual per family to make food purchases, to reduce the risk that a gang member may become ill and not be able to access medical care.
  • In Honduras, the paralysis of the transportation and informal trade sectors, generally common sectors for extortion, has registered a decrease in cases of extortion due to the pandemic. However, there have been reports of threats of retroactive charges once commerce resumes, house-to-house tariffs, and road ‘tolls’, and scams executed by gangs. Food distributors are frequent victims of extortion when entering communities.
  • In Guatemala, extortion has not stopped either, although at the beginning of the pandemic some maras (gangs) granted ‘pardons’ in their communities. However, national agencies predict that when the restrictive measures end, there will be an increase in other crimes and that extortion will return as a greater threat.
  • Mobility restrictions increase the risk of people being trapped in violent environments, making it difficult to seek support in other territories and countries. Despite this, many people seek and will continue to seek irregular migration options, despite the dangers of the pandemic, in order to leave the high-violence, low-income contexts in which they live.