Empowering Caribbean women through migration

 

To fully understand the Caribbean region, one must look at migration and its effects. This region has experienced - and is still experiencing - several migratory movements which have contributed to the configuration of Caribbean societies. The feminization of migration, the emigration of skilled professionals to developed countries and intra-regional migration are some of the current trends in the region.

A recent research conducted by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and IOM, the UN Migration Agency on “Women’s empowerment and migration in the Caribbean” indicates that "migration represents an opportunity to empower women and boost their autonomy." Their individual conditions or situations will shape their lives in the countries of origin, transit and destination and determine the nature of the migration process.

This is an important point to emphasize when major Caribbean populations reside in Canada (365,000), the Dominican Republic (334,000), and Spain (280,000), and when approximately 55 per cent of the 4 million Caribbean migrants residing in the United States were female in 2013. Additionally, in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago, women account for more than 50 per cent of migrants, and in Barbados the number is as high as 60 per cent.

Empowerment is a difficult concept to define, and so is the assessment of its impact on migration. The United Nations developed five components to better explain women’s empowerment: women’s sense of self-worth; their right to have and to determine choices; their right to have access to opportunities and resources; their right to have the power to control their own lives, both within and outside the home; and their ability to influence the direction of social change to create a more just social and economic order, nationally and internationally.

Empowerment will only take place if women are given the chance to migrate through regular channels, access decent jobs, develop professional skills, benefit from the provisions of immigration admission policies and the socio-economic environment of the host country. However, if Caribbean women migrate irregularly they could be subject to further vulnerabilities, abuse and violation of their human rights, and their fear of being arrested, detained or deported will prevent them from seeking health or social services.

Data on labour force participation rates in the Caribbean shows that gender disparity in the labour market remains a matter of deep concern, showing that males were more active in the labour force than females: many women perform domestic jobs, often without access to social protection, and mostly as providers of low-paid caregiving work. In other professions such as nurses, doctors or teachers overseas, Caribbean women tend to migrate due to the high demand for these professions and better-paid opportunities in developed countries.

Migration and women’s empowerment are linked at every stage of the migration process. There is clear evidence that migration not only brings major benefits to women in financial independence, but also in terms of household tasks. As ECLAC and IOM research shows: “When men migrated first and resided abroad for years before their wives joined them, the men learned household tasks and were more willing to assist their spouses when the two were reunited.”

Women, regardless of their migratory status, are rights holders and States are responsible for ensuring those rights. Current migration in the Caribbean region raises many questions, reveals opportunities and challenges, but still lacks gender equality policies and agreements. This study has developed an array of specific recommendations for countries of transit and destination, including those in the Caribbean, for the private sector and the international community.

If you are interested in learning more about the proposed recommendations of the research on Women’s empowerment and migration in the Caribbean, you will find them here: https://www.cepal.org/es/node/44891

 

About the author:

Gustavo Segura is currently supporting the IOM Regional Communications Unit for Central America, North America and the Caribbean as an intern. He has a Master’s Degree in International Relations with emphasis in International Cooperation from the University Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3, and a Bachelor's Degree in Communications and Political Science from the University Lumière Lyon 2.

 


How to Facilitate the Reintegration of Returnee Migrant Children in the Schools?

Categoria: Return and Reintegration
Autor: Ismael Cruceta

 

According to data from the Migratory and Consular Observatory of Honduras, a total of 35,244 Honduran nationals have been returned from January 1 to June 22, 2018. Among them, 4,505 are children and teenagers. Considering these numbers, it is important to face challenges regarding reintegration of children in the country.

In this context, the UN Migration Agency (IOM), has initiated a series of training in 2018 for teachers about the migratory process, in order to promote a better reintegration of returned migrant children and teenagers. Through a theoretical-practical methodology, workshops have been held on three specific themes: interview techniques, return and reintegration, and migration and youth.

Thanks to these workshops, teachers of primary education have now more tools to carry out interviews with returned migrant children, which help them identify their needs. Thus, workshops are enabling teachers to take concrete actions to facilitate the process of reintegration in the country.

These series of training have allowed us to identify three keys to facilitate the reintegration of returned migrant children in schools:

 

-Have information on national initiatives to promote reintegration. In 2014, Honduras experienced a high flow of unaccompanied returned children, which led the government to approve executive decree declaring a humanitarian emergency. Since then, a government mechanism that addresses inter-institutional issues has been created. This represents an opportunity for schools to join the country's efforts on this situation.

 

-Involvement of teachers as part of a comprehensive response. Teachers are essential in detecting the specific needs of returned children. Depending on each case, they can coordinate with competent authorities to help making the reintegration process successful. For example, in Honduras, there is a network of state services for the protection of migrants that includes the Municipal Units for Attention to Returnees (UMAR). These offices, whose opening has been possible thanks to IOM, seek to ensure the educational, social and economic reintegration of these children and families.

 

-Promote coordination mechanisms with parents of migrant children to learn more about the progress of the reintegration process beyond the educational centers. This also implies knowing the level of reintegration in their communities and their leisure time.

These three points must be accompanied by a transversal axis: provide teachers with necessary tools to ensure that all children can enjoy their rights.

 


 

   Sobre el autor:

Ismael Cruceta is a Communication Specialist in Honduras for IOM Mission for the Northern Triangle of Central America. He has a degree in Journalism, a Master's degree in International Ibero-American Relations from Universidad Rey Juan in Madrid, and a Diploma in Digital Journalism for Social Transformation from Universitat Oberta de Cataluña (Spain). He has worked as a Communication Specialist of the United Nations System in Honduras and Bolivia. In addition, he has worked with different international cooperation projects in Ibero-America.